Main Types of Fabrics

Fabrics are flexible and may be woven, knitted, crocheted (a material made by interlocking loops of thread pulled from a continuous yarn), felted (fabric with the fibers entangled to form a solid mass), or bonded together. There are two main types of fabrics: natural and synthetic.

Natural fabrics such as wool, cotton, silk, and linen are made from animal coats, cotton-plant seed pods, fibers from silkworms, and flax (fiber from the stalk of a plant), respectively.

Synthetic fabrics can be made from fossil fuels or recycled materials. Some important synthetic fabrics include nylon (made from petroleum byproducts) often used for stockings), spandex (elastane) (made from petroleum byproducts), and polyester (polyethylene terephthalate) (made from petroleum byproducts).

What fabrics do high-end designers use?

Fabrics that are frequently used in high-end clothing include French silk, Egyptian cotton, Swiss lace, and Italian wool.

French silk is highly prized for its durability and natural luster. The best-known manufacturers of this type of fabric are Lansay and Martine Chapoutier.

Egyptian cotton is the most popular choice in luxury bedding, because of its superior comfort and durability. The best-known manufacturers of this type of fabric are Frette, Loro Piana, Bianco di Siena & Colombo.

Swiss lace is a symbol of luxury, but also has very good breathability properties. It is used in high end clothing by brands such Barcelona-based Simmon and luxury fashion house Herm├Ęs.

Italian wool has a unique combination of strength, warmth and lightness. The best known manufacturers of this type of fabric are Vitale Barberis Canonico, Reda, Loro Piana, and Scabal.

What are fabrics give examples?

  • Linen is one of the oldest man-made fabrics, having been used for over 8,000 years. When spun in long threads and woven into cloth, it has a faint diagonal ribbing which gives it an attractive sheen. Linen is strong, absorbent, easy to keep clean, and is comfortable in hot or cold weather fabrics. Linen is a textile made from the fibers of the flax plant. Flax fibers are composed primarily of cellulose and lignin.
  • Cotton has been cultivated and used by humans for thousands of years. It forms high-quality fabrics with excellent dyeing properties, great breathability, and an affinity to dyes, making them especially easy to print on. It is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of cotton plants of the genus “Gossypium.”
  • Wool is one of the oldest fabrics, having been made since 3500 BC. It’s very similar to hair and has a springy quality that makes it resilient, often used in suits and outerwear that need to be hardwearing and breathable. It is a natural fiber that is obtained from the fleece of sheep and certain other animals, such as goats, llamas, alpacas, and rabbits. It is frequently spun into yarn used to create a knitted fabric. As a result, wool fabrics are perhaps the most versatile of all textiles and humans have used it since Neolithic times for the purposes of clothing and shelter.
  • Nylon is one of the most common fabrics used, from stockings to ropes to parachutes. But unfortunately, nylon is a polymer made from oil products, and it has been linked to harmful environmental effects.
  • Polyester is a type of plastic made from purified terephthalic acid or dimethyl terephthalate, which reacts with dihydroxyl benzene to form polyester chains. Polyester fabrics have high durability, good elasticity, high strength, resistance to creasing and wrinkling, and excellent resistance to mildew.